Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca)


WILD STRAWBERRY[i] (Fragaria vesca)
Family: Rosaceae           
Fragaria vesca
(Downs above Bignor, September 2002)

Wild Strawberries are widespread throughout the British Isles with the exception of the most northerly areas of Scotland (for distribution maps see Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora). They can be found growing prolifically in woodland glades and on grassy banks[ii]. The fruits ripen in early June and they can be harvested until the end of August or even later.

Inedible look-alikes
Before the fruits form it can be difficult to distinguish between Wild Strawberry and the equally common Barren Strawberry (Potentilla sterilis) which has very similar leaves and flowers (for comparison of flowers and leaves of the two species see: Easy Wildflowers). If they are Barren Strawberry plants and you return a month later to harvest the fruits, you’ll find that the flowers have ripened merely to clusters of inedible dry achenes.

The two look-alikes are in fact easily distinguished—even from their leaves. Each leaflet of the Barren Strawberry has a terminal tooth that’s much shorter than the teeth on either side of it, whereas in the true Wild Strawberry the terminal tooth is as long as, or longer than those on either side, even if it’s quite narrow. Also, the hairs on the underside of Barren Strawberry leaves stand upright, while those of the Wild Strawberry lie flat. Lastly, the upper sides of Barren Strawberry leaves are often much darker than the light green leaves of the true Strawberry (see also Jones 2018).

Images showing differences in leaf morphology
[Photos: Gordon Hillman]. (Coldthorne Lane, Hailsham, April/May 2009)

What we think of as the fruit of the strawberry plant is actually just a fleshy receptacle. The true fruits—the structures produced by the plant’s ovaries or carpels—are the little pips (or achenes) scattered over the surface of this red receptacle. There have been various theories on the origins of the name strawberry, for example, that it derives from the practice of covering the lines of cultivated strawberry plants with a low ridge of loose straw to hide the scarlet fruits from the sharp eyes of strawberry-loving birds; or from the tradition of pickers who used to carry the fruits strung on pieces of straw when taking them to market; or from Old English to ‘strew’ (see Online Etymology Dictionary), which describes the plant’s runners that stray in all directions and look as if they are strewn on the ground (Darrow 1966: 16; see also: Missouri Environment and Garden News).

Nutritional and medicinal uses
Wild Strawberries may be small but they are packed with flavour—with their combination of intense sweetness and effervescent tartness they produce a taste explosion. They can be eaten raw or cooked, and are commonly made into jams, jellies and juices; the leaves are also edible (Plants For A Future [PFAF] database; see also: Jarić et al. 2007; Schunko and Vogl 2010; Vorstenbosch et al. 2017). In the Upper Reno Valley (Bologna and Tuscany, Italy) an alcoholic drink is made by fermenting Wild Strawberry fruits, and the recipe states: “Fill glass jar with wild strawberries, cover with sugar, close jar and expose to sunlight for 40 days. The lightly fermented syrup, filtered and bottled, is used as a drink, diluted with a double quantity of water.” (Egea et al. 2016: table 4; see also: Egea et al. 2015).

Wild Strawberry plants (flowers, fruits, leaves, stems, roots) are a rich source of bioactive compounds known to have beneficial effects in terms of promoting health and preventing disease; for example, they are proven to be effective in the reduction of obesity and heart disease risk, they provide protection against certain cancers, have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetes, antioxidant and anticoagulant properties, and are also effective blood pressure and cholesterol regulators (Afrin et al. 2016; Basu et al. 2016; Dyduch-Siemińska et al. 2015; Liberal et al. 2014; Muthukumaran et al. 2017).
Fragaria vesca – flowers and leaves.
(Horam, Cuckoo Trail, May 2010)

Strawberries are high in micronutrients, phenolic compounds and ellagitannins[iii]; they are a useful nutritional supplement for diets low in saturated fats and sodium, in addition they contain high levels of potassium and fibre (Alvarez-Suarez et al. 2014; see also Nutrition Value online database). Research has shown that the fresh strawberries have far more nutritive value than the processed foods made from the fruits (e.g., jam, juice, purée, wine; Alvarez-Suarez et al. 2014 8-9; but see also: Dyduch-Siemińska et al. 2015: 6, who comment that: “Dried fruits have a greater nutrient density, greater fiber content, increased shelf life, and significantly greater phenol antioxidant content compared to fresh fruits”). The nutritional content of the fruits (i.e., in terms of relative proportions of micronutrients, bioactive compounds, vitamins, etc.) is also dependent on the variety of Wild Strawberry, the time of cultivation and the date of harvesting (Jurgiel-Małecka et al. 2017: 208).

It is unsurprising, therefore, given the wealth of health benefits of Wild Strawberries, that there are numerous references to traditional uses of the plants. In Maden (Eastern Turkey, Elaziğ Province) the fruits are commonly acknowledged to have many curative properties, including as an analgesic, antiseptic, astringent and diuretic, and they are also used to treat several gastric (e.g., stomach pains, enteritis, diarrhea) and urinary disorders (Çakılcıoğlu et al. 2011). Similarly, the efficacy of the species in treating certain digestive problems is recognised by villagers living at several locations in the mountainous Kopaonik region of Central Serbia, but here the leaves (e.g., in the form of an infusion) are used for their diuretic and laxative properties (Jarić et al. 2007). In addition, the leaves (washed clean and placed externally on the affected area) are used to alleviate painful haemorrhoids (ibid.: table 2). In the Palestinian West Bank 50 ml. of a decoction made of leaves boiled in water is taken 5-6 times per day for antibiotic purposes (Jaradat et al. 2016). In the Albanian Alps in Kosovo an infusion of Wild Strawberry leaves is used as a neuro-relaxant (Mustafa et al. 2012). And a traditional fermented liqueur made from Wild Strawberry fruits is taken as a remedy for diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems in the Upper Reno Valley (Bologna and Tuscany, Italy; Egea et al. 2015: supplementary data).
Fragaria vesca – showing achenes on the bright red,
fleshy receptacle. (Abbots Wood, June 2009)

Prehistoric and historic uses
Fragaria vesca remains are found on archaeological sites of all periods (for references see: Kroll 1997: 35). As is typical of many of the fruits described in the Wild Plant Foods of Britain blog, finds of Wild Strawberries are most frequently preserved in waterlogged rather than charred form (see separate entries for Blackberry, Sloe, Crab apple, Dog rose, Raspberry). There is very early evidence of fruit gathering at the late Mesolithic/Ertebølle culture site of Tybrind Vig in Denmark (c. 5600-4000 BC), where two achenes were identified in submerged cultural deposits (Kubiak-Martens 1999). The disparity between quantities of Wild Strawberry remains preserved by waterlogging versus charring is perhaps most clearly exemplified in the archaeobotanical samples at Neolithic pile dwelling (‘Pfahlbauten) settlements[iv] in southern Europe (for comparative quantitative data see: Colledge and Conolly 2014: table 4; Jacomet 2006[v]: table 3: Karg and Märkle 2002: table 2). For example, large quantities of waterlogged Wild Strawberry achenes were found at the late Neolithic lakeside settlements of Arbon Bleiche 3 in Switzerland (n=5,471; Jacomet et al. 2004) and Torwiesen II in Germany (n=48,413; Herbig 2006) and at these two sites charred specimens were present in very low numbers (0.07% (n=4) and 0.15% (n=73) of the total waterlogged achenes, respectively). Thousands of waterlogged remains (but no charred finds) are also recorded at early Neolithic Egolzwil 3 (Switzerland, Bollinger 1994), middle Neolithic Motte-aux-Magnins (France, Lundström-Baudais 1989), at the late Neolithic sites of Horgen-Scheller (Switzerland, Favre 2002), Nidau-Schlossmatte/BKW (Switzerland, Brombacher 1997), Sutz-Lattrigen (Lattrigen Hauptstation VII; Switzerland, Brombacher 1997), Seekirch-Achwiesen (Germany, Maier 2004), Seekirch-Stockwiesen (Germany, Maier 2004), Sipplingen (Germany, Riehl 2004) and Hočevarica (Slovenia, Jeraj et al. 2009), and at final Neolithic Clairvaux Les Lacs station III (France, Lundström-Baudais 1986). At Neolithic dry-land settlements, where only charred Wild Strawberry achenes are preserved, the numbers are much lower (for two examples where quantities exceed 100 see: Antolín and Jacomet 2015; Blankenhorn and Hopf 1982).

Charred Wild Strawberry remains were found within and around the Copper Age (c. 3000-2800 BC) cremation chambers located along the Riparo Valtenesi limestone terrace at Rocca di Manerba, on Lake Garda in Italy (Colledge 2007). The fruits were with placed with the human bones together with other edible domestic and wild plants, including many colourful fruits, presumably as dedications before the cremations took place, and the author comments: “The strawberries and raspberries would have been easily accessible for gathering and, like the Cornelian Cherries, if picked when mature both would have added to the vivid colours of the funerary offerings.” (ibid.: 399).

The history of the use of Fragaria vesca dates back to the Roman period and several well-known authors include references to the fruits in their works, including Cato the Elder (234-149 BC), Virgil (70-19 BC), Ovid  (43-18/17 BC), Pliny (23-79 AD) and Apuleius Barbarus (c. 6th century AD; Darrow 1966: 15-16; Wilhelm 1974: 264). The brightly coloured fruits are depicted in Roman frescoes, as at the ancient site of Oplontis[vi] in the Villa of Poppaea, where one painting shows a still life with a basket of Wild Strawberries and other fruits. Jashemski et al. also mention the copy of a painting (the original now no longer visible) on a pillar in the Villa of Diomedes at Pompeii, showing a Wild Strawberry with roses and a butterfly (Jashemski et al. 2002: 111 and figure 265).

Wild Strawberries appeared in many Medieval religious paintings in the 1400s and are considered to have had symbolic meaning; Darrow cites Haig (1913), who states: “the strawberry stands apart from all other symbolical fruits…. It is the symbol of perfect righteousness” (Darrow 1966: 11-14; Sillasoo 2006: 64; see also: Łuczaj 2012). It is thought that the tripartite leaves symbolised the Holy Trinity, the five petals of the flower represented the wounds of Christ and fruits his blood (Darrow 1966: 13, citing the Swiss herbalist Father Johann Künzle[vii]). The profusion of religious depictions coincided with the time when strawberries were first cultivated in Europe (for a comprehensive summary of the early history of the strawberry, see: Darrow 1966: 15-23). In 1368 King Charles V of France reputedly asked his gardener to plant 1,200 strawberries in the gardens at the Louvre in Paris (Darrow 1966: 16). French aristocracy followed suit and in 1378 the Dukes of Burgundy also had cultivated plots of the fruits (ibid.). Early documentary evidence in Britain for the growing of strawberries in gardens comes from references in Shakespeare’s plays, for example, in Richard III (written in c. 1593) Act III, scene IV (which takes place in the Tower of London) the Duke of Gloucester asks the Bishop of Ely to fetch him some of the fruits: 

When I was last in Holborn,
I saw good strawberries in your garden there
I do beseech you send for some of them.

Darrow comments that by the mid-1550s strawberries were so popular in England that they were regularly farmed in order to satisfy demands, he also cites Thomas Tusser who in his Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry (1557) advises that their cultivation is best done by women:

Wife, into the garden and set me a plot
With strawberry roots, the best to be got;
Such growing abroad among thorns in the wood,
Well chosen and picked, prove excellent good.

There are numerous recorded finds of Wild Strawberries on Medieval sites and many are preserved (commonly in waterlogged, mineralised or desiccated form) in cess pits and midden deposits (Greig 1996). Approximately 800 achenes were identified in two organic layers inside the 15th century Worcester barrel latrine (Greig 1981), thousands of Wild Strawberry remains (c. 9,000) were recovered from two cess pits (15th/16th century) at Göttingen in Lower Saxony, Germany (Hellwig 1997), average concentrations of c. 500 achenes per litre are recorded for seven 11th-13th century latrines at Überlingen on Lake Constance, Germany (Märkle 2005), and at the castle of Marmorera[viii] (c.14th century) in southeast Switzerland over 2,750 desiccated achenes were found in a crevice to the west of the chapel where household rubbish was routinely discarded (Akeret and Kühn 2008; for other Medieval references, see: Bosi et al. 2009; Brombacher and Hecker 2015; Mazzanti et al. 2005; Rösch et al. 2005).

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[i] Also known as: woodland strawberry, Alpine strawberry, Carpathian strawberry, European strawberry or ‘fraisier des bois’.
[ii] For example, on the South Downs the carpets of wild strawberries in 2009 were so thick with fruits that it was possible to gather over a kilo in one hour (Peter Owen-Jones, pers.comm.).  
[iii] Ellagic acid (EA)—a plant phenolic—derives from ellagitannins, and is linked to human health benefits (Muthukumaran et al. 2017); the authors state: “Strawberries are considered a functional food and nutraceutical source, mainly because of their high concentration of EA and its precursors.
[iv] For a description of the depositional processes at pile-dwelling settlements, see separate entry for Blackberry.
[v] In this paper Jacomet notes: “The most important collected plants were hazelnut (Corylus avellana  L.), wild apple (Malus sylvestris  Miller), sloe (Prunus spinosa  L.), acorns (Quercus  spp.), blackberry and raspberry (Rubus  spp.), wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca  L.) and rose (Rosa  spp.)” (Jacomet 2006: 81).
[vii] For details see: https://www.kp-kuenzle.ch/johan-kuenzle/ [accessed: 23.07.18]
[viii] The castle was built under a massive rock shelter and this was the reason why so much of the organic materials was preserved (for more details see Janosa 1993).

Tuesday, 31 July 2018

Wild Service Tree (Sorbus torminalis)


WILD SERVICE-TREE or CHEQUERS (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz)


Family: Rosaceae

(not to be confused with the "Serviceberry" shrub (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.)


Sorbus torminalis
(Michelham, October 2011)
The Wild Service Tree, also known as “Chequers” is probably the rarest of the approximately 40 Sorbus species native to the British Isles. Thinly distributed on clay and limestone soils in lowland areas across the Midlands and southeast England and Wales it is also found in the temperate zones of Mediterranean Europe (for distribution maps in England, see: Thomas 2017: 1808 or OnlineAtlas of the British and Irish Flora; for distribution maps over Europe, see EUFORGEN).

It is a deciduous woodland tree that is at its most conspicuous in the autumn, when the flame-shaped leaves change to fiery reds and oranges. In Britain today, it is most commonly found in groves, thickets and hedges, and generally reaches a height of 10-15m. Although considered shade-tolerant, it flourishes when grown in conditions of light and space, and free-standing trees are usually taller, sometimes topping at a massive 25 metres.  It is relatively drought-tolerant but vulnerable to frost, which is why in Britain it is limited to the lowlands of the southern and central latitudes (for a comprehensive review of the ecological characteristics of S. torminalis in the UK, see Thomas 2017).

The common name “Service” is from the Old English word “syrfe” (“serves” plural), a derivation of the Latin Sorbus; the species part of the Latin name “tormina”, refers specifically to the effectiveness of the fruit for treating colic (Grigson 1955).

Flowering and Fruiting
Around May the Wild Service Tree produces flowers on a corymb, the inflorescence resembling the creamy white trusses of its close relative Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The fruit, known as "Chequerberry" is a small oval or pear-shaped pome that develops in late summer, ripening in the autumn.  The pomes are highly variable in shape and size, even within the same corymb. More commonly obovate to round, and sometimes obovate or elliptical shaped, they measure an average of ~14mm long and ~11 mm wide but can measure anywhere between 8.20 - 19.60 mm long and 8.20 –15.50 mm wide (Bednorz 2007).
Sorbus torminalis – bletted fruits
(including 6 unripe, yellow fruits).
(Michelham, December 2005)
Food Uses: a cautionary tale
In the early stages of development, the fruit is a yellowish colour and too firm to be edible, as well as exceedingly astringent, sour and somewhat bitter (Plants For A Future [PFAF] database). However, with maturation the pome turns a yellow- or purplish-brown colour and becomes so soft that it is almost impossible to pick without squashing. Once bletted (the natural process of browning and softening) the fruits are highly palatable and can be eaten fresh, straight from the tree (with caution: see below).  The naturalist Richard Mabey (1989: 38) describes the taste of the bletted fruit as “…unlike anything else which grows wild in this country, with hints of damson, prune, apricot, sultana and tamarind.” 

Chequers pomes can produce up to six pips (seeds), although one or two is more typical. They are soft and easily chewed and swallowed compared to, e.g. the hard seeds of apple, but unless processed they are potentially toxic. Like the seeds of many other fruit in the Rose family (including apple, cherry, peaches, apricot, pear and plum), S. torminalis seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides, which, if consumed over the long-term, even in small amounts, can cause serious health problems (Bolarinwa et al. 2015; Gleadow and Møller 2014). 

Sorbus torminalis – seeds from
bletted fruits. (Michelham, December 2005)

Thomas (2017: 1824) summarised the historical food uses of Chequerberry in Britain and Europe, noting that although it was often made into jams and jellies, the fruit was primarily consumed in drink form, more commonly an alcoholic cider but also wine and brandy. Fermentation is a way to remove cyanogenic glycosides, which may explain its consumption as an alcoholic drink.

A tasty fruit snack can be prepared by pounding the fruit into a mush with a pestle and mortar, shaping the mush into cakes or dampers (unleavened loaves) and baking them, e.g. on hot stones, in ashes or in an oven (Hillman, unpublished field notes). Pounding or otherwise crushing whole fruit and then processing it with heat (roasting, baking, boiling) is another effective method of detoxifying the seeds because it mixes the cyanogenic glycosides with endogenous enzymes, which in turn transforms the cyanide contents into a chemical form that, when baked, are volatized by the heat (Bolarinwa et al. 2015: 22). Indeed, most historically reported solid foods made with Chequers fruit in Britain and Europe involve these processes, e.g. jellies and conserves, and a German source reported their use in a sweet and sour porridge (Düll 1959, cited in Thomas 2017: 1824).
         Processing Sorbus domesticus fruits – bletted and pounded.                   
Processing Sorbus domesticus fruits – bletted, pounded and ready for eating.
Processing Sorbus domesticus fruits – bletted, pounded and baked.
Recent scientific interest in the bioactive and antioxidant potential of the pomes of S. torminalis and several other Sorbus species suggests that there are significant health benefits from eating the fruit, both raw and processed. Like most edible fruit, Chequerberry is higher in Vitamin C and other antioxidants when fresh than as fermented or processed products; nevertheless, Chequerberry jams and jellies are high in Vitamin C compared to similar processed food products from other fruit (Mrkonjic et al. 2017).  Chemical analyses show that fruit of Chequerberry and some of its relatives meet the criteria for being named a “functional food” because they have high levels and types of endogenous phenolics and other compounds that are known to promote the prevention and treatment of infections and diseases (MikulicPetkovsek et al. 2017; Mrkonjic et al. 2017; Olszewska and Roj 2013; Raudonė et al. 2014).

Nutraceutical, Nutritional and Medicinal Benefits
As noted above, the species nomenclature “torminalis” is a reference to the medicinal use of Chequerberry fruit in treating colic (“tormina” in Latin) (Grigson 1955). In fact, Chequerberry fruit as well as the leaves have numerous reported traditional medicinal applications across Europe and the Near East, including the treatment of coughs, diarrhoea, fever, bronchitis, colic and kidney stones, and they are also effective as a diuretic (Olszewska and Roj 2013).

The effectiveness of S. torminalis fruit for preventing as well as treating a range of medical conditions has been confirmed by recent studies of the chemical components of fruit, flowers and leaves. Among these, Mrkonjic et al. (2017) identified compounds in the fruit that are known to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes and promote antimicrobial activity against infection by certain strains of staphylococci and E-coli.  In another study, Hasbal et al. (2015) identified S. torminalis (and several other species in this genus) as a potent natural source of Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor compounds (anti-AChEs), chemical substances that are widely used in present-day medicines for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, e.g. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

The value of the leaves for traditional medicine is exemplified by their uses in the Kırklareli Province of northern Turkey, where they are boiled into a decoction to treat diabetes and stomach ache (Kültür 2007: 358). Scientific analyses of extracts from the leaves confirm that they are an excellent source of antioxidants as well as having other useful medicinal components (Olszwska et al. 2012), as are the leaves of various other Sorbus species (Raudonis, et al. 2014).

Archaeological Occurrence
Chequerberry seeds are seldom reported archaeologically, and in most cases are recovered from waterlogged contexts, rather than charred. A remarkable exception, which also represents the earliest known archaeological occurrence, is the recovery of 18 charred Chequerberry seeds from the mid/late Neolithic hilltop settlement a Heilbronn-Klingenberg, in southwest German. The seeds were found in pit features, which the excavators interpreted as cellar storage structures used primarily for cereals (although cereals dominated the seed assemblage from this site, a wide range of wild edible plants were also found) (Stika 1996).

Another remarkable find is a waterlogged Chequerberry fruit skin and seeds that were recovered from a 16th century cesspit in Göttingen, southern Lower Saxony, Germany, (skilfully illustrated by Hellwig 1997: 11). They were recovered in association with a substantial number of other woodland fruits, which suggests that the collecting and consumption (and probably processing) of wild edible plants were important for the subsistence, diet and possibly social aspects of this Medieval urban community (Hellwig 1997).

Although Sorbus sp. seeds are not uncommon in British archaeological sites, S. torminalis is rarely reported. One (waterlogged) seed was recovered from a latrine at Dudley Castle, in the Midlands, dating from the British Civil war in the mid17th century (Moffet 1992).

The rarity of these seeds in the archaeological record is probably due to identification problems given the similarity in size and shape seeds in the Sorbus genus. Moreover, there is great within-species variability and S. torminalis seed size and shape can vary significantly even within fruit from a single corymb (Bednorz 2007; Bednorz et al. 2006; Maciejewska-Rutkowska and Bednorz 2004).  Bednorz et al. (2006: 4) reported that the seeds range in shape from mostly obovate (±77%), to elliptical (±12%), to oblanceolate (±6%), to wide obovate (±4%) and sometimes occur as oblong or roundish (±1%); their average size is ~ 6.20 mm long and ~3.25 mm wide, but they range from 3.20–8.10 mm in length and 1.70–5.70 mm in width.

Seed coat structure appears to be the most diagnostic characteristic, which may explain why identifications of seeds from waterlogged contexts are more common, i.e. in cases of charring the seed coat may be damaged or burned off (see Maciejewska-Rutkowska and Bednorz’s 2004 study of five Polish Sorbus species, which provides a detailed key for seed identification accompanied by useful SEM micrograph images).

References cited
Bednorz, L., Walkowiak, R., Maciejewska-Rutkowska, I. and Moliński, K. 2006. Seed variability of the Polish species of the genus Sorbus (Rosaceae). Dendrobiology 55: 3–9.

Bednorz, L. 2007. Morphological variability of fruits and seeds of Sorbus torminalis in Poland. Dendrobiology 57: 3-14.

Bolarinwa, I.F., Orfila, C. and Morgan, M.R.A. 2015. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices. Food Chemistry 170: 437 - 442.

Düll, R. 1959. Unsere Ebereschen und ihre Bastarde. A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg, Germany.

EUFORGEN: European Forest Genetics Resources Programme. http://www.euforgen.org/ [accessed: 10.07.18]

Gleadow, R.M. and Møller, B.L., 2014. Cyanogenic Glycosides: Synthesis, Physiology, and Phenotypic Plasticity. Annual Review of Plant Biology 65: 155-185.

Grigson, G. 1955. The Englishman’s Flora. Phoenix House, London, UK.

Hasbal, G., Yilmaz-Ozden, T. and Can, A. 2015. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinester activities of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz (wild service tree) fruits. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 23: 57 – 62.

Hellwig, M. 1997. Plant remains from two cesspits (15th and 16th century) and a pond (13th century) from Göttingen, southern Lower Saxony Germany. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 6: 105-116.

Kültü, S. 2007. Medicinal plants used in Kırklareli Province (Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111: 341-364.

Maciejewska-Rutkowska, I. and Bednorz, L. 2004. SEM and stereoscope microscope observations on the seeds of the Polish species of the genus Sorbus L. (Rosacea). Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 73: 293-300.

Mabey, R. 1989. Food for Free. London. HarperCollins.

MikulicPetkovsek, M., Krska, B., Kiprovski, B. and  Veberic, R. 2017. Bioactive components and antioxidant capacity of fruits from nine Sorbus genotypes. Journal of Food Science 82: 647-658.

Moffat, L. 1992. Fruits, vegetables, herbs and other plants from the latrine at Dudley Castle in central England, used by the Royalist garrison during the Civil War. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 72: 271-286.

Mrkonjic, Z.O., Nađpal, J.D., Beara, I.N., Sabo, V.S.A., Četojević-Simin, D.D., Mimica-Dukić, N.M. and Lesjak, M.M.  2017. Phenolic profiling and bioactivities of fresh fruits and jam of Sorbus species. Journal of the Serbian Chemistry Society 82: 651-664.

Olszewska, M. A., and Roj, J. M. 2011. Phenolic constituents of the inflorescences of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. Phytochemistry Letters 4: 151–157.

Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Botanical Society of Britain & Ireland. https://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/ [accessed: 10.07.18]

Plants For A Future (PFAF). http://www.pfaf.org/ [accessed 16.07.18]

Raudonis, R., Raudonė, L., Gaivelytė, K., Viškelis, P. and Janulis, V. 2014. Phenolic and antioxidant profiles of rowan (Sorbus L.) fruits. Natural Product Research 28: 1231-1240.

Raudonė, L., Raudonis, R., Gaivelytė, K., Pukalskas, A., Viškelis, P., Venskutonis  P.R. and  Janulis, V. 2015 Phytochemical and antioxidant profiles of leaves from different Sorbus L. species. Natural Product Research 29: 281-285.


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